1. Whether a so-called “informational injury” satisfies the Article III standing requirement of realworld harm articulated in Spokeo v. Robins, 136 S. Ct. 1540 (2016), where plaintiff alleges at most a bare procedural violation of the Fair Credit Reporting Act, 15 U.S.C. § 1681b.
2. Whether a bare procedural violation of a statute may be deemed “willful”—i.e., knowing and reckless—under Safeco Insurance Co. of America v. Burr, 551 U.S. 47 (2007), where no risk of harm resulted from the alleged violation.